Saturday, June 24, 2006

#001 FULL TEXT OF SUMATI SATAKAM





PRONUNCIATION TABLE



aa - long A as in ant, bat, cat.
c - as in chalk, chat (without aspirate). The sound of k has been
avoided.
d` - Retroflex 'd' as in dog, donkey, door.
ee - long e, as in bake, care, dare, fare.
ii - long i, as in beat, cheat, deal, eel, feel, heal.
l` - heavy l.
n` - heavy n.
oo - Long o, as in goat, coat, note.
s` - as in sack, salary.
t` - retroflex t, as in tap, ten, tin, ton, tune.
uu - long u as in school, pool, tool.
Every effort has been made to maintain the phonetic spelling.

























Sumati S`atakam?

A book of about 100 poems in Telugu language, ending with "Sumatii (Man of virtuous mind!).

Author

Baddenaamaatya or simply 'Baddena'. From India. 14th Century A.D. Wrote the verses in Telugu language.

Theme of the verses

Deals with ethics. Intended originally for children. But elders also appreciate and relish the poems getting them by heart. The verse lines have become household proverbs.



















































































CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1


CHAPTER 2


CHAPTER 3


CHAPTER 4


CHAPTER 5


CHAPTER 6


CHAPTER 7


CHAPTER 8

PRICELESS COMFORTS AND LUXURIES

CHAPTER 9


CHAPTER 10











Back to Contents
CHAPTER 1


s`rii raamuni daya ceetanu
aaruud`hi ga sakala janulu auraa anagaa
dhaaraal`am aina niitulu
nooruuraga cavulu put`t`a nud`iveda Sumatii ! 1

Prayer AND preamble. Srii Rama = (God.)
Oh person of Virtuous Mind ! With Lord Srii Rama's blessings, so that all people acclaim and applaud I (the poet Baddena, 13th Century AD) shall tell maxims,
morals and ethical precepts in an appetising and delicious manner.


akkaraku raani cut`t`amu,
mrokkina varamiini veelpu, moharamuna daa
nekkina baarani gurramu
grakkuna vid`avamgavalayu gadaraa Sumatii ! 2

FIT TO BE ABANDONED?

1. A relative who will not be present on ceremonial occasions and when other necessary occasions arise (such as marriages, deaths etc.)

2. A God who does not fulfil desires or grant a gift in spite of praying.

3. A horse which does not move after mounting.
akkara = necessity, a family function; ku = to; raani = not turning up; cut`t`amu = relative; mrokkina = even after abegging and praying; varamu = gift; iini = not giving; veelpu = God; mooharamu = battle; na = in ; taanu = oneself; ekkina = even after mounting; paarani = not galloping or at least moving; gurramu = horse; grakkuna = without delay; vid`uvamga = to leave; valayu = required, necessary.


ad`igina jiitamb ivvani
mid`imeelapu doranu golci mid`ukut`a kamt`en
vad`igala yeddula gat`t`uka
mad`i dunnuka bratuka vaccu mahiloo Sumatii ! 3

EMPLOYERS WHO DO NOT PAY WAGES/SALARY
There is no use in serving a master who does not pay wage when asked.
It is better to get a pair of bullocks and eke out a living by tilling land.

ad`igina = even afte asking; jiitambu = jiitamu = salary, wage; ivvani = not giving;
mid`imeelamu = audacious, disrespectful, insolent, insulting, rude; dora = master;
nu = objective case; kolici = serving, having served; mid`ukuta = live with grief; kamt`en = than;
vad`i = speed; kala = having; eddulu = bullocks; kat`t`uka = binding to a yoke; mad`i = a small piece of land; dunnuka = tilling; bratuka = eke out a living; vaccu = may come; mahi = this earth, world; loo = in.

ad`iyaasa koluvu koluvaku,
gud`i man`iyamu seeya pooku, kujanula tood`an
vid`uvaka kuurimi seeyaku(mu),
ad`avini tood`ara(ka) omt`i (n)arugaku Sumatii ! 4


DON'TS
1. Engaging oneself in a fruitless (futile) service.
2. Working as trustee of a temple
3. Ceaseless friendship with crooks.
4. Going alone in a forest.
ad`iyaasa = disappointing, futile; koluvu = service; koluvaku = do not be in service (second person imperative); gud`i = temple; man`iyamu = trusteeship, headship; seeya = ceeya = to do; pooku = do not go (second person imperative); kujanulu = fools, rascals; tood`an = with; vid`uvaka = without gap; kuurimi = friendship; seeyaku = ceeyaku = not do; ad`avi = forest; ni = in; tood`araka = unhesitatingly; omt`i = alone; arugaku = do not go.


adharamu kadaliyu, kadalaka
madhuramul(u) agu bhaas`ha lud`ugi mauna vratud`au
adhikaara rooga puurita
badhiraamdhaka s`avamu cuud`a paapamu Sumatii ! 5

DEAF AND BLIND DRENCHED POWER
It will be sin even to see the corpse of the fellow who

1. is blinded and deafened by power. 2. He does not move his lips and is tightlipped (uncommunicative).
adharamu = lips; kadaliyu = just moving; kadalaka = not moving; madhuramulu = sweet
agu = being (suffix for adjective); bhaasha = language; bhaashalu = conversation, dialogues; ud`ugi = ud`igi = exhausting, having abandoned; mauna = silence; vratud`u = person who has taken a oath; adhikaara = power, authority; rooga = disease; puurita = full of; badhira amdhaka = deaf and blind; s`avamu = corpse, body; cuud`a = to see; paapamu = sin.

appu koni ceeyu vibhavamu,
muppuna praayamput`aalu, muurkhuni tapamun,
tapparayani nrupu raajyamu
depparamai miida giid`u deccura Sumatii ! 6

THINGS WHICH BRING DANGER
1. Luxury and opulance and ostentation with borrowed funds
2. young wife,when in danger and difficulties.
3. penance of a fool.
appu = loan, borrowing; koni = having taken; ceeyu = doing; vibhavamu = exhibition of opulence and ostentation; muppu = danger; na = in; praayampu = praayamu = youthful; aalu = wife; muurkhud`u = fool, knave; ni = of (possive case); tapamun = penance; tappu = fault; guilt; arayani = not checking, not verifying; nrupu = of a king; depparamu = danger, peril, strait; kiid`u = danger; teccu = brings; ra = suffix for familiary, and closeness.


appiccuvaad`u, vaidyud`u,
neppud`u ned`ategaka paaru neerunu, dvijud`un
joppad`ina yuura numd`umu
coppad`akunnat`t`i yuuru so~rakumu Sumatii ! 7

PLACE SUITABLE FOR RESIDING AND SETTLING
1. Presence of a lender.
2. " of a physician.
3. " perennial rivulet or any other water source.
4. priest.

The poet advises the virtuous minded person not to enter places which do not fulfil these minimum needs.
appu = borrowing, loan; iccu = gives; vaad`u = that person; vaidyud`u = doctor; eppud`u = always; ned`a tegaka = without gap, intermission; paaru = flowing; eeru = river, rivulet; nu = also; dvijud`u = priest; dvijud`un = n is a suffix or poetic use; coppad`ina = available conveniently; uuru = village; umd`umu = stay (second person imperative); coppad`aka = not available conveniently; unnat`t`i = existing; uuru = village; corakumu = do not enter (second person imperative mood).


alluni mamcitanambu,
gollani saahitya vidya, koomali nijamun,
polluna damcina biyyamu,
tellani kaakulunu leevu teliyumu Sumatii ! 8


NON-EXISTENT OR RARE THINGS
1. good and understanding son-in-law.
2. literary education and skills of a shepherd.
3. truthful woman.
4. corn obtained from pined rice
5. white crows.
allud`u = son in law; ni = possessive case; mamcitanamu = mamcitanambu (poetic) = goodness, nobility, politeness; golla = shepherd; saahitya = literary; vidya = education, skill; koomali = woman; nijamun = truth; polluna = ; damcina = pounded; biyyamu = rice; tella = white; kaakulu = crows; leevu = do not exist; teliyumu = pl. know (second person imperative).


aakonna kuud`e amrutamu,
taakomcaka niccuvaa~md`e daata dharitrin,
sookoorcuvaad`e manujud`u,
teekuva kalavaad`e vams`a tilakud`u Sumatii ! 9

DESIRABLE AND THE BEST THINGS
1. Food taken when hungry,is equal to nectar.
2. Person who gifts unhesitatingly is a real donor.
3. Person who can endure difficulty and trouble, is the real man.
4. Brave, courageous and firm person is the real progeny of pride.
aakonna = when hungry; kuud`u = food, meal; kuud`e = only that food; amrutamu = nectar; taakomcaka = without hesitation; iccu = giving; vaad`e = that person; daata = benefactor, donor, patron; dharitri = earth; sooku = pain; oorcu = enduring; manujud`u - man; teekuva = brave, courageous, firm, fresh ; vams`a = clan; tilakud`u = the best.


aakali ud`ugani kad`upunu,
veekat`iyagu lamja pad`upu vid`uvani bratukun,
praakonna nuuti yudakamu,
meekala paad`iyunu roota meedini Sumatii ! 10

GROTESQUE AND OBNOXIOUS THINGS IN THE WORLD

1. Food which does not satiate hunger.
2. Intercourse with a whore at early dawn.
3. Well water - stagnant and containing mass.
4. Dairy of goats.
aakali = hunger; ud`ugani = exhaust; kud`upu - feeding; veekat`i = dawn; lamja = prostitute; pad`upu = sleeping with a prostitute; praakonna = filled with moss; nuuti = of well; udakamu = water; meekala paad`i = dairying with goat's milk; roota = abominable, grotesque, obnoxious.













Back to Contents
CHAPTER 2


iccunadee vidya, ran`amuna
coccunadee magatanambu, sukaviis`varulun
meccunadee neerpu, vaduku
vaccunadee kiid`u summu vasudhanu Sumatii ! 11

THE BEST AND REALISTIC DEFINITIONS
1. Real Education : Learning to give away and hand out.
2. Real chivalry and manliness : Fighting in a battle.
3. Real skill and talent : Winning appreciation from great poets.
4. Real danger: That which comes to a court.
iccunade = that is given; vidya = education; ran`amuna = into the battle field; coccunadee = that enters and penetrates; magatanambu = chivalry, masculinity and valour; sukaviis`varulun = the master poets; meccunadee = what is appreciated by; neerpu = skill, talent; vaadu = dispute for trial; ku = to; vaccunadee = that comes; kiid`u = ill deed; summu = it is so; vasudha = earth, world; nu = in.


immuga caduvani noorunu,
nammaa yani bilici yanna mad`ugani noorun,
tammula piluvani noorunu
kummari manu travvinat`t`i gumt`ara Sumatii ! 12

ABOMINABLE THINGS
A potter's pit abandoned by him after he extracted his loam is a subject of comparison. The objects compared are:
1. A mouth which does not read;
2. A mouth which does not call 'Mother!' and beseech for food;
3. A mouth which does not call brothers.
A potter's pit will be a large gaping hole. A mouth will also be.
Alliteration: 'mm' double consonant occurs repeatedly giving an easy to memorise and pleasant feeling, besides the poem imparting an ethical value in family life.
immu = Fine and pleasant (there are other meanings). ga = ly suffix for adverb; caduvani = not reading; nooru = mouth; ammaa = Oh mother; ani = that ; pilici = having called; annamu = food, meal; ad`ugani = not asking, not seeking; tammulu = brothers; piluvani = not calling, not inviting; kummari - potter; manu = earth, mud; travvina = dug up; kumt`a, gumt`a = ditch, trench;


ud`umumd`ade nuureemd`lunu,
bad`iyumd`ade peermi baamu padinuureemd`lun,
mad`uvuna gokkera yumd`ade,
kad`u nila burus`haartha parud`u gaavale Sumatii ! 13

GOAL OF LIFE ON THIS EARTH
On this Earth man should be endowed with the four goals of duty, wealth, love and deliverance. Otherwise his life becomes comparable to ud`umu, paamu, kokkera.

1. Ud`umu is a lizard known as "Bengal monitor" with the zoological name "Varanus Bengalensus". (People believe that the lizard lives 100 years). First line above.

2. Paamu = Snake or Serpant. (People believe that a serpant lives 1000 years, unless killed by man). Second line above.

3. Kokkera - crab. A crab lives in a lake quite aimlessly.
Thus a man whose life is devoid of goals (purposeful, fulfilling), will be like a crab, lizard and a snake.
padi = ten; nuuru = hundred; eemd`lu = years; mad`uvu = lake, tank; na = in;
kad`u = a lot; ila = on this earth, in this world; purushaartha = fulfilling the four primary goals of man: dharma (duty), artha (money), kaama (love and passion), mooksha (deliverance). parud`u = one who attains (has other meanings).
kaavale = should become.


uttamagun`amulu niicuna
kette~raguna galuga neercu; neyyed`alam daa
netticci karagi poosina
nittad`i bamgaaramagune yilaloo Sumatii !? 14


INCORRIGIBILITY OF A CROOK AND KNAVE
SIMILE : WICKED PERSON = brass; VIRTUOUS PERSON = gold.
In spite of melting and remelting brass umpteen number of times, we do not get gold. A wicked man is incorrigible.
uttama = virtuous; gun`amulu = characteristics, qualities; niicuna ku = to a wicked person; etteragu = ee + teragu = in what manner; kaluga = accrue, come; ittad`i = brass; etticci = repeatedly; karagi = melt; poosina = pour; bamgaaramu = svarn`amu = gold; agune = Will it become; ilaloo = on this earth


udakamu traaved`u hayamunu,
madamunan uppomgucumd`u matteebhambun,
modavu kad`a nunna vrus`habhamu,
caduvani aa niicu kad`a ku canaku ra Sumatii ! 15

THINGS NOT TO BE APPROACHED (NOT TO BE GONE NEARER)
1. horse drinking excess water
2. crooked, intoxicated, and tipsy elephant. Elephant in rut (sexually excited).
3. A bull in rut. 4. Uneducated youth
udakamu = water; traaved`u = that drinks, adjective; hayamu = horse; nu = objective case; madamu = in rut; uppomgu cumd`u = flaring, aroused; matteebhamu = matteebhambu = elephant; modavu = cow; kad`a = near; vrushabhamu = ox; caduvani = unread; aa = that; niicu = knave; ceera = near, approaching; ku = to (preposition) ; canaku = do not go;

upakaari ki upakaaramu
vipariitamu kaadu seeya vivarimpamgaa;
apakaari ki upakaaramu
nepamennaka seeyu vaad`u neerpari Sumatii ! 16

DOING GOOD TO A BAD DOER
There is nothing great in doing good to a person from whom some help has already been received. A person who unhesitatingly and without finding fault helps an ill-doer, is a skillful person.
upakaari = a benefactor; ki = to; upakaaramu = benefit, help; ceeya = doing; vipariitamu = extra ordinary, surprising; kaadu = not; vivarimpam gaa = to explain; apakaari = ill doer; nepamu = excuse; nepamu ennaka = not finding out excuses to avoid, not finding faults; seeyu = doing; vaad`u = person; neerpari = talented person.


upamimpa modalu tiyyana
kapat`amb(u) ed`aned`anu ceraku kaivad`i nee poo
nepamulu vedakunu kad`apat`a
kapat`apu durjaati pomdu gadaraa Sumatii ! 17

FRIENDSHIP WITH A KNAVE
SIMILE USED: SUGAR CANE and a ROGUE.
The friendship with a rogue starts sweetly. Cane is also sweet in taste initially.
Later, the rogue starts searching for excuses and opportunities to find fault. Cane also tastes bitter or salty at joints, after the initial sweetness.

upamimpa = to compare, to use a simile; modalu = beginning, start; tiyyana = sweet; kapat`ambu = kapat`amu = knavery, fault, cunning. ed`a ned`anu = hither and thither (at joints); ceraku = sugar cane; kaivad`i = like; nepamulu = excuses; poo = to go; vedakunu = searches; kad`apat`a = later; kapat`apu = crafty, cunning; durjaati = knave; pomdu = friendship.


eppat`i keyyadi prastuta
mappat`ikaa maat`alaad`i, yanyula manamul
noppimcaka, taa novvaka,
tappimcuka tiruguvaad`u dhanyud`u Sumatii ! 18

UNHURT CONVERSATION SKILLS
A fulfilled person has certain characteristics: 1. Speaks as appropriate to the occasion; 2. Not hurts others. 3. Not hurts himself. 4. Bails himself out.

eppat`i keyyadi prastutamu = as appropriate to the moment; appat`iki aa maat`alu = words for that time; anyula manamul = egos of others (manamu = mind); noppimpaka = without hurting; taanu = oneself; novvaka = without getting himself hurt
tappimchuku tirugu vaad`u = a person who bails himself out successfully (not an escapist); dhanyud`u = Fulfilled person.

eppud`u tappulu vedaked`u
nappurus`huni kolvaguud`ad(u) adi et`lannan
sarpambu pad`aga niid`anu
kappa vasimcina vidhambu gadaraa Sumatii ! 19

SERVING A FAULT FIND MASTER
A master/employer who always finds faults with the servant/employee should never be served. The poet uses a simile. He compares such service to a frog living under the shade of a hood of a serpant. Any time the serpant can bite and swallow the frog.

eppud`u = always; tappulu = faults; vedaked`u = searching, finding
appurushud`u = that man (employer, master). ("ni" is objective case declension).
kolva = serve; kuud`adu = not to; adi = that, it; et`lannan = it is how;
sappambu = sappamu = serpant; pad`aga = hood; niid`a = shade; kappa = frog
vasimcina = lived; at`lu = like;
DOUBLE CONSONANTS "ppu" "ppa" : figure of speech alliteration.
IN our work place situations, we may face problems. Though it is not always possible to leave employment, simply because the boss always finds fault, care is to be exercised. A frog cannot sleep under the hood of a serpant.

eppud`u sampada kaligina
nappud`u bamdhuvulu vattu radi yet`lannan
teppaluga ceruvu nimd`ina
kappalu padiveelu ceeru gadaraa Sumatii ! 20

WEALTH BRINGS RELATIVES
When a tank becomes full with water, frogs crowd in thousands (ten thousand).
When we get wealth, relatives visit us. (Otherwise, they shun/avoid us).
This is the way of the world. For this reason only, Karl Marx might have declared that all HUMAN relationships are ECONOMIC.
eppud`u = when; sampada = wealth; kaligina = accrues; appud`u = then
bamdhuvulu = relatives; vatturu = come; adi = that, it; et`lu = how; annan = to say
adi et`lannan = it is how; teppalu ga = full of waves; ceruvu = water tank
nimd`ina = if becomes full; kappalu = frogs; padi veelu = ten thousand
ceeru = come together; gadaraa = kadaraa = Is n't it?; Sumatii! = Oh good person













Back to Contents
CHAPTER 3







eerakumii kasugaayalu,
duurakumii bamdhujanula doos`hamu summii,
paarakumii ran`amamduna,
miirakumii guruvu naaj~na meedini Sumatii ! 21

DON'T
1. pick and gather raw and unripe fruits. (Because they are not edible, it is a waste of time.) 2. find faults of relatives. (Because you will become unpopular.). 3. flee away from a battle ground. (In those days, fleeing from battle ground was considered shameful.)
4. disobey the command of teacher.

guruvu = teacher. aagna = command, order. miiraku = Do not disobey.
Verb conjugations eerakumii, duurakumii, paarakumii, miirakumii have many inflections. miiru (root verb) + ku conjugation for second person pronoun imperative + mu conjugation for second person pronoun imperative + "ii" a suffix to add beauty.


oka yuuriki noka karan`amu,
noka tiirpariyaina gaaka, nogi darucainan,
kakavikalu kaaka umd`une
sakalambunu kot`t`u vad`aka sahajamu Sumatii ! 22

MULTIPLE COMMANDERS
There should be only one village accountant. There should be only one judge.
Else, everything becomes chaotic and confusing. There will be helter-skelter and pell-mell.

(In the 13th Century, villages were small in size. More than one village official meant multiple commands and multiple extortions.)

orun aatma talacu sati vid`u,
marumaat`alu paluku satula mannimpakumii,
verap(u) erugani bhat`u(ni) eelaku,
taracuga sati kavaya pooku, tagadu ra Sumatii ! 23

DON'T
1. continue with a wife who thinks of others. 2. tolerate wives who argue.
3. engage a servant who does not fear. 4. go to meet wife too often.

orun = other person (obj. case); aatma = in mind; talacu = thinking about, recalling about, dreaming about; sati = wife; vid`u - abandon; marumaat`alu = repartees, arguments; palku = uttering; satula = wife (obj. case); mannimpaku = Do not tolerate (imp. case); verapu = fear; erugani = not knowing; bhat`uni = the guard, servant (obj. case); eelaku = do not be a master, do not administer (imp. case); taracu ga = often; kavaya = united; pooku = do not go (imp. case); tagadu = not to do.


ollani sati nollani pati,
nollani celikaani vid`uva nollani vaad`ee
gollamd`u, kaaka dharaloo
gollamd`unu gollad`aune gun`amuna Sumatii ! 24

GUILELESS AND NAIVE
This verse deals with a person's willingness to part with spouse/friends, when they are not willing to continue the relationship. A person who is persistently unwilling to part ways, the poet considers as innocent. Such a person like a legendary shepherd is innocent, and not the actual shepherd. The actual shepherd is an intelligent person. Figure of speech employed is "ALLITERATION". The stressed syllable is "ll". It is consonantal.

ollani = Not willing to cohabit; sati = wife; pati = husband; celikaani = inflection for dative case. celikaad`u + ni; celikaadu = friend; vid`uva = abandon;
gollamd`u = Gollamd`u literal meaning is a shepherd. Figurative meaning is an innocent person. dhara loo = in this world or on this earth; gun`amuna = inflection for "in"; gun`amuna = in quality and character;

ood`ala bamd`lunu vaccunu,
ood`alu naabamd`lamiida noppuga vaccun,
ood`alu bamd`lunu valanee
vaad`ambad`u galimi leemi vasudhanu Sumatii ! 25

REVERSAL OF POSITIONS : WEALTH AND POVERTY
Ships come on carts (In those days boats were carried by carts from the yard to the port). Ships will be used like carts when there is no wealth.
SIMILE USED: Ships (ood`alu) are the rich men. Carts (bamd`lu) are the poor.
In ordinary days, poor people carry the burden of the rich.
When the rich men lose their wealth, they will be overburdened like the poor.

ood`alu = ships; bamd`lu = carts; aa = that; miida = on; oppuga = in grandeur; vale = like; vaad`am bad`u = will be used; kalimi = prosperity. leemi = paucity. vasudha = world.


kad`u balavamtud `ainanu
pud`amini praayampu t`aali put`t`ina imt`an
tad`av umd`a nicce neeniyu
pad`upugan amgad`iki taane pamput`a Sumatii ! 26

EQUIVALENTS OF SENDING A WIFE TO DEBAUCHERY
Even a chivalrous and strong person should not allow his wife to stay at her native place for a good time. Doing so, may be as good as sending her to a brothel by the husband himself. (13th Century belief).
kad`u = very; bala vamtumd` ainanu = even if a strong person; pud`ami = earth; ni = on, in; praayampu = youthful; aalu = sati = wife; aali = wife (obj. case); put`t`ina = birth; imt`an = in the house; tad`avu = significant time; umd`a nicce = allow to stay; eeninyu = if; pad`upuga = sex worker like; amgad`i = shop; taane = oneself (here husband himself reflex. pronoun; ) pamput`a = sending.


kanakapu simhaasanamuna
s`unakamu guurcumd`abet`t`i s`ubha lagnamunam
donaraga bat`t`amu gat`t`ina
venukat`i gun`ameela maanu vinaraa Sumatii ! 27


INCORRIGIBILITY OF A KNAVE
If we bring a dog, seat it on a golden throne and anoint it as a king,
it does not forget its inherent qualities. (eg. A dog may bite old footwear, as they have leather content).
kanakamu = gold; kanaka pu = made of gold; simha asanamu = throne; s`unakamu = dog.
kuurcumd`a pet`t`i = having seated (the dog); onaraga = befittingly; pat`t`amu kat`t`ina = anointment as king; venukat`i = past; gun`amu = quality, characteristic trait; eela = why?; maanu = cease, stop.

Modern behavioural sciences believe that people can be corrected through counselling and training. Rewards and punishments (behaviourial scientists call: OPERANT CONDITIONING OR BEHAVIOURAL MODIFICATION). In spite of the best motivation and training at the hands of experts, some people may remain incorrigible.

Baddena wrote Sumatii S`atakam in 13th Century, earlier than Chaucer's writings in English. It, therefore, may reflect contemporary behaviours.

kappaku oragaal ainanu,
sarpamu naku roogamaina, sati tuluv ainan,
muppuna daridrud`ainanu,
tappadu mari duhkham agut`a tathyamu Sumatii ! 28

THINGS WHICH COMPULSORILY CAUSE MISERY
1. A frog becoming lame and limping. 2. A sick serpant 3. A crooked and wicked wife. 4. Poverty when in danger.
kappa = frog; oragalu = limping; ainanu = if happens; 5. sarpamu = snake; ku, naku = to (obj. case); roogamu = ailment, disease, sick; tuluv(u) = shrew; muppu = danger, difficulty; daridrud`u = penniless person; tappadu = inevitable, unavoidable; mari = henceforth; dukhamu = misery, sorrow; agut`a = taking place; tathyamu = definitely.


kamalamulu niit`a baasina
kamalaaptuni ras`mi sooki kamalina bhamgin
tama tama nelavulu dappina
tama mitrulu s`atrulaut`a tathyamu Sumatii ! 29

FRIENDS BECOME ENEMIES WITH CHANGE OF PLACE
Lotus and Sun are friends. A lotus flower dries up once it is taken out of water.
A friend becomes an enemy if he changes his place (loses his authority, influence, power).
kamalamu = lotus. lu - prefix for plural; niit`a = niit`ini = water; paasina = if leaves; kamala aptud`u = Sun; ras`mi = light (sunlight); kamilina = become dry and fade; bhamgin = like; tama = tama tama = one's own; nelavulu = places, positions
tappina = if change, lose; mitrulu = friends; s`atrulu = enemies; aguduru = will become tathyamu = truth.


karan`amu karan`amu nammina
maran`aamtaka maunu gaani manaleed`u sumii;
karan`amu tana sari karan`amu
mari nammaka marma miika manavale Sumatii ! 30

A VILLAGE OFFICIAL NOT TO TRUST ANOTHER VILLAGE OFFICIAL
If a village accountant believes another village accountant, the believer cannot survive. It leads to his death. Hence he should never believe and confide to a co-village accountant.














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CHAPTER 4





karan`amula nanusarimpaka
virasambuna tinna timd`i vikat`imcu jumii
irusuna kamdena pet`t`aka
paramees`varu bamd`i yaina baaradu Sumatii ! 31

EVEN GOD'S CHARIOT WILL NOT MOVE WITHOUT GREASE

A village accountant is to be satisfied. Any villager who defies the village accountant and consumes as per his whims, will suffer. Even God's chariot will not move wihout lubricant. (Village accountants were corrupt in the 13th Century.)


karan`amu saadaiyunnanu,
kari mada mud`iginanu, paamu karavaka unnan,
dhara teelu miit`ak unnanu,
kara maruduga lekka konaru gadaraa Sumatii ! 32

PEOPLE RESPECT ONLY WHEN STINGING AND STRONG
Nobody cares if
1. a village accountant is considerate and soft.
2. an elephant is not arrogant.
3. a snake does not bite.
4. a scorpion does not sting.


kasu kaaya karaci cuucina
masalaka pasa ogaru raaka madhuramb(u) agunaa;
pasa kalugu yuvatul umd`aga
pasi baalala bomdu vaad`u pas`uvu ra Sumatii ! 33


PERSON INDULGING IN INFANT SEX IS AN ANIMAL
A raw fruit tastes astringent and not sweet. When good girls are available, a person who craves for an infant is a beast.

MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS
kasu = raw; kaaya = fruit; karaci = having bitten and tasted; cuucina = if seen;
masalaka = without change; pasa = taste; ogaru = astringent; kaaka = not otherwise;
madhuramu, madhurambu = sweet; agunaa = will it be?

kalugu = giving, getting, happening; yuvatulu = youthful girls; umd`aga = when available, existing; pasi = infant baalala = children; pomdu vaad`u = person who gets; vaad'u = person; pas`uvu = beast.

kavi kaani vaani vraata yu,
navarasa bhaavamulu leeni naatula valapun,
tavili canu pamdi neeyani
vividh aayudha kaus`alambu vrudha raa Sumatii ! 34

NUGATORY AND PURPOSELESS THINGS
1. Writings of a person who is not a poet. 2. Union with a woman who are inert and devoid of emotions and passions. 3. Skill in using different types of arms, if a pig cannot be hunted.
kavi = poet; kaani = not; vaani = person's ; vraata = writing; nava = nine; rasa = state of ecstasy and enjoyment; bhaavamu = ideas; naati = woman; valapu = love; tavili = missed; canu = going; pamdin = pig; eeyani = who fails to hit ; vividha = different types of; aayudha = weapons; kaus`alambu = kaus`alamu = skill, talent; vrudha = futile, waste.


kaadu sumii dussamgati,
poodusumii "kiirti" kaamta pomdina pidapan,
vaadu sumii appiccut`a,
leedu sumii satula valapu lees`amu Sumatii ! 35

PERENNIAL AND DRYING
GIST IN ENGLISH

1. The lady of fame (Figure of speech: personification) once gained, will not leave.
2. Lending leads to disputes; 3. Women's love is a myth

kaadu = not; sumii = an idiomatic saying to indicate "it is so ..."; dussamgati = bad news, bad thing; poodu = will not go, will not leave; kiirti = fame
kaamta = Lady; pomdina = having gained, obtained; pidapa, pidapan (poetical) = after
vaadu = dispute; appu + iccut`a = appiccut`a = lending; leedu = does not exist
sati = woman, particularly wife. satulu = women; satulu + valapu = satula valapu = women's love (Satulu has become Satula to indicate possessive case); leesam = not even the bearest minimum.

kaamukud`u tanisi vid`icina
koomali paravit`ud`u kavaya koorut`a ellan
preemamuna ceraku pippiki
ciimalu vesa muuginat`lu siddhamu Sumatii ! 36

A DEBAUCHE woman IS LIKE BAGASSE
A lascivious paramour who approaches a slut who was already fully used by another lover is like ants surrounding bagasse in anticipation of juice.

kaamukud`u = paramour, lover; tanisi = Having used to satisfaction;
vid`icina = abandoned; koomali = woman; para vit`udu = another paramour; vit`udu = paramour; kavaya koorut`a = desire to have intercourse with; ellan = all this, wholly; preema = love; premamuna = with love; ceraku = cane; pippi = fibrous waste left after extracting juice = bagasse; ciima = ant; ciimalu plural; vesa = fast;
muuginat`lu = like surrounding; siddhamu = readily.


kaaran`amu leeni nagavunu,
peeran`amu leeni leema, pruthivii sthaliloo
puuran`amu leeni buureyu,
viiran`amu leeni pemd`li vrudharaa Sumatii ! 37

BANAL and FECKLESS
1. Smile/laughter without reason. 2. An young lady without a long jacket and not dancing on the stage. 3. A sweet cake without filling. 4. wedding without band of double drums.

kaaran`amu = reason; leeni = without; nagavu = navvu = smile/laughter; peeran`amu = dance, long jacket; pruthvii sthali = on this earth; puuran`amu = filling; buure = sweet cake; viiran`amu = double drum used in marriages; pemd`li = wedding; vrutha = waste.

kulakaamta tood`a neppud`u
galahimpaku, vat`t`i tappu Ghat`iyimpakumii,
kalakamt`hi kamt`a kannii
rolikina siri yimt`a numd`a nolladu Sumatii ! 38

NO PROSPERITY IF WIFE GRIEVES
1. Never quarrel with your beloved/wife. 2. Never attribute guilt to her.
3. If tears roll from a woman's eye, the Goddess of Wealth will not like to reside in such house.
kula kaamta = wife; tood`a = with; eppud`u - at any time; kalahimpaku = do not quarrel; vat`t`i = empty; tappu = fault, guilt; ghat`iyimpaku mii = do not attribute
kalakamt`hi - lady, woman, wife (the woman with sweet voice); kamt`a = in the eye
kanniru = tears; olikina = drop down; siri = wealth, Goddess of Wealth; imt`a = in the house; umd`a - to reside; olladu = does not wish.


kora gaani kod`uku but`t`ina
kora gaamiye kaadu tamd`ri gun`amula cerucun
ceraku tuda vennu put`t`ina
cerakuna tiipella ceracu siddhamu Sumatii !

HAPPINESS IN BIRTH OF A SON
When a useless son is born, he will not be futile, he will also disgrace and ruin his father. Proof: If a sugar cane stem develops an ear of corn, it removes all the sweetness in the sugar cane plant. (Here the figure of speech employed is arthaamtara nyaasam: A statement of ethics is supported by a daily life example from agriculture).
kora gaani = useless; kod`uku = son; put`t`ina = if born; kora gaami = his being useless; yee kaadu = Not only does he remain useless; tamd`ri = father; gun`amulu = qualities; ceracu - ceracun = spoils;
ceraku = sugar cane; tuda = top of the edge, end; vennu = ear of corn; tiipi = sweetness; ella = all; ceracu = spoils; siddhamu = readily, assuredly.


kuurimi gala dinamulaloo
neeramu lennad`unu galuga neeravu ma~ri yaa
kuurimi virasambainanu
neeramulee toocu cumd`u nikkamu Sumatii ! 39

TIMES OF AMITY AND ANIMOSITY
As long as there is friendship, we find no omissions/commissions/offenses in our friends. When it is broken, even a small omission will get magnified into an offense. The friendship will not continue.
kuurimi = friendship; kala = existing; dinamulu = days; loo = in;
neeramulu = omissions, commissions and offenses; ennad`u nu = at any time
kaluga neeravu = will not occur (take place); mari = if; aa = that;
virasamu, virasambu = absence of harmony; toocu = appear; cumdu = exist (continuous tense, simple present tense); toocu cumdu = appear to exist; nikkamu = definite, sure, true.
Better to be objective at all times, particularly during days of waning friendship. Excesses are to be avoided.


komcepu naru samgati cee
amcitamuga kiid`u vaccu adi et`l annan
kimcittu nalli kut`t`ina
mamcamunaku ceet`u vaccu mahiloo Sumatii ! 40

ILLS OF FRIENDSHIP WITH MISCREANTS AND RASCALS
Friendship with rascals brings many ills. If a small bug bites a person, the bed will be beaten up in search of the bug.
komcepu (adj) = small; naru = man; komcepu naru = knave; samgati = association, friendship; cee = by; amcitamuga = ultimately; kiid`u = danger; vaccu = will come; adi = that; et`lu = how; annan = to say; kimcittu = A little; nalli = bed bug; kut`t`ina = if bites; mamcamu = bed, cot; naku = to obj. case; pet`lu = blows.













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CHAPTER 5



kokkookam ella cadivina,
cakkani vaad`aina, raaja camdrumd`ainan,
mikkili rokkamul iyyaka,
cikkaduraa vaara kaamta siddhamu Sumatii ! 41

A WHORE IS NOT APPROACHEABLE WITHOUT MONEY
A person well versed in the science of "MAKING LOVE", beautiful, a moon among kings, cannot still have access to a whore without paying cash profusely.
kokkookamu = A book of love; ella = all; cadivina = read; cakkani = handsome;
vaad`u = that person; aina = even if happens to be; raaja = king; camdrumd`u = camdrud`u = moon;
mikkili = large, substantial; rokkamu = cash; iyyaka = without giving; cikkadu = will not make herself available; vaara kaamta = whore.

kora gaani kod`uku but`t`ina
kora gaamiye kaadu, tamd`ri gun`amula ceracun
ceraku tuda vennu but`t`ina
cerakuna tiipella ceracu siddhamu Sumatii ! 42


A BAD SON SPOILS HIS FATHER
When a useless son is born, he will not be futile, he will also disgrace and ruin his father. Proof: If a sugar cane stem develops an ear of corn, it removes all the sweetness in the sugar cane plant. (Here the figure of speech employed is arthaamtara nyaasam: A statement of ethics is supported by a daily life example from agriculture).
kora gaani = useless; kod`uku = son; put`t`ina = if born; kora gaami = his being useless; yee kaadu = Not only does he remain useless; tamd`ri = father; gun`amulu = qualities; ceracu - ceracun = spoils; ceraku = sugar cane; tuda = top of the edge, end; vennu = ear of corn; tiipi = sweetness; ella = all; ceracu = spoils; siddhamu = readily, assuredly.


koomali vis`vaasambunu,
paamulatoo celimi, anya bhaamala valapun,
veemula tiiya danambunu,
bhuumiis`ula nammikalunu bomkura Sumatii ! 43

LIES AND NON-EXISTENT THINGS
FOLLOWING ARE FALSE and not dependable
1. Faithfulness of woman; 2. Friendships with snakes 3. Love of women
4. Sweetness of neam fruits 5. Confidence of kings.

koomali = woman; vis`vaasambu = vis`vaasamu = faithfulness; paamu = snake; to, toot`i = with; celimi = friendship; bhaama = woman, bhaamalu = women; veemulu = neam fruits; tiiyadanamu = sweetness; bhuumi = earth; iis`ulu = lords; bhuumis`ulu = kings
nammika = confidence; bomku = false.


gad`ana gala magani juucina
nad`ugad`uguna mad`ugu lid`udu rativalu damaloo;
gad`a nud`ugu magani juucina
nad`a piinugu vacce namcu naguduru Sumatii ! 44


WIVES RESPECT EARNING HUSBANDS ONLY
When ladies see earning husbands, they welcome with red carpets. When they see an idle and earning-dry husband, they laugh as if a semi-dead person has come.

gad`ana = earnings; magad`u = husband; magani = magad`u (dative case);
piinuga = corpse. nad`u piinuga = idiomatic usage for a semi dead person.
naguduru = they laugh; ad`ugad`ugu = every step; cuucina = having seen


cimtimpaku kad`acina pani(ki),
imtulu valatur ani nammak emtayu madiloo,
amtahpura kaamtalatoo
mamtanamula maanu midiye matamura Sumatii ! 45

DON'T
1. worry about past. 2. believe blindly in mind that women will love you.
3. engage in conversation with women in king's palace.

cimtimpaku (imp.case) = do not regret, worry; kad`acina = past; pani = work; imtulu = women; valaturu = will love; ani = that; nammaku (imp.case) = do not believe; emtayu = howsoever; madi = mind; madi loo = in the mind; amtahpura (adj) = palace; kaamtalu = women; too = with; mamtanamula = talks; maanumu (imp. case) = stop;
idiye = this alone; matamu = opinion (another meaning religion is not contextual).

ciimalu pet`t`ina
put`t`alu paamula kiravainayat`lu paamarud`u dagan
heemambu guud`a bet`t`ina
bhuumiis`ula paala ceeru bhuviloo Sumatii ! 46

COMMONERS SAVE, KINGS ROB
Ant hills are occupied by snakes. Gold accumulated by citizens reach the kings.

ciima lu = ants (lu is a suffix for plural); pett`ina = built by, kept by
put`t`alu = anthills; paamula ku = to snakes; iravu = house, dwelling, place
tagan = fittingly; paamarud`u = lay man; heemambu = heemamu = gold
kuud`a bet`t`ina - accumulate; bhuumiis`ulu - king; bhuvi = earth


cut`t`amulu gaani vaaralu
cut`t`amulamu niikat`amcu sompu dalirpan
net`t`ukoni yaas`rayimturu
gat`t`iga dravyambu galuga gadaraa Sumatii ! 47

WEALTH ATTRACTS PEOPLE
When a person becomes rich, relatives pour in, pleading that they are relatives.
cut`t`amu - relative; kaani vaaralu = kaani vaaru = who are not; niiku = to you
at`amcu - saying that; sompu = beauty; talirpan = gloriously; net`t`ukoni = pushing
aas`rayimturu = come and take refuge; gat`t`iga = adequately; dravyambu = dravyamu = wealth; kaluga = received; kadaaa = so.


ceetulaku tod`avu daanamu,
bhuutala naathulaku tod`avu bomkami dharaloo,
niitiye tod`av evvaariki,
naatiki maanambu tod`avu nayamuga Sumatii ! 48

REAL JEWELLERY
1. Real jewels for hands: Charitable and generous hands
2. For kings : not lying
3. For anybody : Ethics and Morals
4. For woman : virginity and chastity.

ceetulu = hands; ceetulaku = to hands; tod`avu - jewel; daanamu = liberality
bhuutala naathu = king; bhuutalam = surface of land; bomkami = Not lying; niiti = ethics, morals; evvaari ki = to anybody; naati = woman; naati ki = to a woman
maanamu = self respect; nayamu ga (adv) = well!


tad`av oorvaka, od`al oorvaka,
kad`u veegamb ad`ici pad`ina kaaryam bagunee;
tad`a voorcina, od`a loorcina,
ced`ipooyina kaaryam ella ceekuru Sumatii ! 49

ENDURANCE GETS THINGS ONE
Acts which spoil a task:
1. Inability to endure or wait a few moments. 2. Inability to take physical effort and pains. 3. Extreme haste.
Acts which aid accomplishment of task: 1. Ability to endure and forbear
2. Ability to take physical pains. 3. Even a totally hopelessly spoiled task will get revived.
tad`avu = a little time; oorvaka = without waiting, enduring; od`lu = body, physical; kad`u = very; veegambu = veegamu = fast; ad`isi = egiri = in a hastened state; pad`ina = if falls; kaaryambu = karyamu = task, work; agune? = Will get fulfilled?
ced`i pooyina = already spoiled; ella = all; ceekuru = will recoup.

tana koopame tana s`atruvu,
tana s`aamtame tana ku raksha, daya cut`t`amb au
tana samtoos`hame svargamu,
tana duhkhame naraka mamd`ru tathyamu Sumatii ! 50













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CHAPTER 6





GOOD AND BAD ARE SELF MADE
1. Enemy : one's own anger.
2. Guard : one's own forbearance and peace.
3. Heaven : one's own happiness.
4. Hell : one's own misery.
tana = one's own; koopamu = anger; s`atruvu = enemy;
s`aamtamu = peace of mind; tana ku = to oneself; raksha = defence, guard; daya = compassion, pity; cut`t`ambu = relative; au = agunu = becomes; samtooshamu = bliss, happiness; svargamu = heaven.


tana yuuri tapasi tapamunu,
tana putruni vidya pempu, dana sati ruupun,
dana perat`i cet`t`u mamdunu,
manasuna varn`imparet`t`i manujulu Sumatii ! 51


NO RECOGNITION OR PRAISE TO WHAT IS LOCAL AND READILY AVAILABLE
NOBODY WILL THINK ABOUT OR RECOGNISE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING:
1. Greatness of one's own place 2. scholarship of one's own son
3. beauty of one's own wife. 4. medical qualities of herbs in one's own premises of the home.
tana yuuru = one's own place; tapasitanamu = heritage; putrud`u = son ; putruni = of the son (possessive case); vidya = education, erudition; pemu = increase, rise
perat`i cet`t`u = plant in one's own house; mamdu = medicine; ruupu = form and beauty.


tana kalimi imdra bhoogamu,
tana leemiye svargalooka daaridryambun,
tana caavu jagat pral`ayamu,
tanu valacina diye rambha tathyamu Sumatii !! 52

MAN LOOKS EVERYTHING FROM HIS OWN POINT OF VIEW
1. One's own prosperity is the real prosperity; 2. One's own poverty is the real poverty (heaven's poverty); 3. One's own death is the end of the world (real end)
4. One's own lover is the heavenly nymph.

kalimi = prosperity; imdra bhoogamu = luxury comparable to that of Imdra the Lord of Heavens; leemi = poverty; svarga looka daaridryamu = poverty of the heaven
caavu = death; jala pral`ayamu = inundation of the world by water.

tana vaaru leeni coot`anu,
janamimcuka leeni coot`a, jagad`amu coot`an,
anumaanamaina coot`anu,
manujunakunu niluva dagadu mahiloo Sumatii ! 53

PLACES WHERE A PERSON CANNOT STAY
1. Where there are not present, one's own people; 2. Where there is no entry and familiarity with initiative; 3. Where people suspect visitors
tana vaaru = One's own people; leeni = not present; coota = place; canuvu = initiative and familiarity; imcuka = a little; anumaanamu = suspicion; manujud`u = man; niluva = to stand; tagadu = should not do;

Changed environment: We have to stay at new places in this global village. Everywhere we do not get our own people.

tamalamu veeyani nooru nu,
vimatulatoo celimi ceesi veta pad`u telivin,
kamalamulu leeni kolakunu,
himadhaamud`u leeni raatri hiinamu Sumatii ! 54

IGNOBLE AND INFERIOR THINGS
1. Mouth which does not consume pawn (betel) leaves
2. Intelligence which makes friendship with knaves and suffers.
3. Lake without flowers of Lotus.
4. Night without moon.
tamalamu = pawn leaves; veeyani = not administered; nooru = mouth; vimatulu = enemies, knaves; too = with; celimi = friendship; ceesi = having done; veta = misery, pain; pad`u - fall in; telivi = intelligence, scruple; kamalamu = lotus; leeni = without; kolaku = lake; nu = also; hima dhaamud`u = moon; raatri = night; hiinamu = ignoble and inferior.

talan umd`u vis`hamu Phan`ikini,
velayam gaa tooka numd`u vrus`cikamu nakun,
tala tooka anaka umd`unu
khalu naku niluv ella vis`hamu gadaraa Sumatii ! 55

A KNAVE IS VENOMOUS ALL OVER HIS BODY
A snake has venom in its head; a scorpion has in its tail; A knave is poisonous top to bottom.
talan = head; umd`u = exists; vishamu = poison, venom; phani = snake; ki = to; ni = to (objective case); velayam gaa = fittingly; tooka = tail; vrus`chikamu = scorpion;
naku = nakun (poetic) = to; tala tooka anaka = without specifying head or tail, i.e. everywhere or anywhere; khalu = knave; niluv = niluvu = top to bottom; ella = all.


talapod`ugu dhanamu poosina
velayaaliki nijamu leedu vivarimpam gaa
tala tad`ivi baasa ceesina
velayaali ni nammaraadu vinaraa Sumatii ! 56

PROSTITUTE IS NEVER FAITHFUL
1. A whore does not utter truth, even if pay her wealth of her height.
2. We should not believe her even if she testifies on oath, with all the required
solemnity.
tala = head; pod`ugu = long; dhanamu = money; poosina = even after showering; velayaalu = whore; ki = to ; nijamu = truth; leedu = does not exist (she does not speak). vivarimpam gaa - to explain; tad`ivi = having touched head (while taking oath); baasa = oath, promise; ceesina = even if she does swear on oath; ni = obj. case; namma = to believe; raadu = not to; vina raa = hear (imp. case).


tala maasinan, olu maasina,
valuvalu maasinanu praan`a vallabhun ainan
kulakaamtal aina rooturu
tilakimpaga bhuumi loona tiramuga Sumatii !! 57

WOMEN LOATH EVEN A HUSBAND
1. When hair is dirty.
2. When body is dirty.
tala = head; maasina = if dirty, soiled; olu = body; valuvalu = clothes (lu is plural suffix); praan`a = life; vallabhn = lord; ainan = even, in spite of ; praan`a vallabhun ainan = even the husband; kula kaamtalu = wives; rooturu = they hate (simple present tense); tilakimpa ga = to observe; bhuumi = earth, world; loona = in ; tiramu ga = without variations.


taanu bhujimpani arthamu
maanava pati ceeru komta mari bhuugatamau
kaanala iigalu kuurcina
teeniya oru ceerun at`lu tiramuga Sumatii !! 58

FATE OF UNSPENT WEALTH
1. A part, the king confiscates. 2. A part, may get hidden under earth.
SIMILE USED: Honey collected by bees reach others.
taanu = oneself (reflexive pronoun); bhujimpani = not eaten, consumed by; arthamu = money, wealth; maanava = man; pati = husband; maanavapati = king; ceeru = reaches; komta = some; mari = something more; bhuugatamau = gets hidden under earth; kaana = forest; kaana la = in the forests; iigalu = bees; kuurcina = gathered by; teeniya = nectar, honey; oru = others; ceerun = reaches; at`lu = like; tiramu ga = without variation.

daggara komd`emu sepped`u
preggad`a palukulaku raaju priyud`ai mari taa
neggu praja kaacarimcut`a
boggulakai kalpataruvu pod`ucut`a Sumatii !! 59

A KING WHO HARMS AND INJURES HIS OWN SUBJECTS
A king who injures his own people, on the basis of hearsay from his courtiers will be cutting a divine tree for charcoal.

daggara = near; komd`emu = complaints; sepped`u = one who utters; praggad`a = courtier; palukulu = words; 'aku' is case-inflection; raaju = king
priyud`u = pleased person ('ai' is inflection for subordinate clause)
taanu = himself; eggu = injury; praja = people ruled by him ("ku" is inflection or preposition = to); aacharimchut`a = practising, causing (injury); boggulu = char coal
kalpa taruvu = heavenly tree which fulfils desires; pod`uchut`a = hacking.

dhanapati sakhud`ai umd`ina
nenayamgaa s`ivud`u bhiks`hamettaga valasen;
dana vaari kemta galigina
dana bhaagyame tanaku gaaka tathyamu Sumatii !! 60

WEALTH OF FRIENDS AND RELATIVES IS NOT OUR OWN
Lord S`iva had to beg and live, though the Lord of Riches the Kubeera
himself was his friend. (According to Hindu mythology, both are neighbours. Kubera is the Lord of the Northern direction. S`iva is the Lord of the North East direction.). A person should always depend on his own fortune. Not to expect from others.

dhanapati = billioneer, very rich man, Lord of riches; (According to Hindu mythology: Kubeera); sakhud`u = friend, ally; enayamga = when we count;
s`ivud`u = Lord S`iva; bhikshamettaga valasen = Forced to beg;
tana vaari ki = To one's own men; emta = howsoever much; kaligina = if possessed
tana bhaagyame = one's own fortune, luck, prosperity; tanaku = to oneself
kaaka = except; tathyamu = truly.














Back to Contents
CHAPTER 7



dhiirulaku ceeyu meeladi
saarambagu naarikeeLa salilamu bhamgin
gauravamunu mari miidat`a
bhuuri sukhaavahamu nagunu bhuviloo Sumatii !! 61

HELPING WISE PERSONS GIVE US COMFORT AND HAPPINESS
Help is extended to good and brave men, like coconut water will bring honour and great comfort.
dhiirulu = brave men; ceeyu = which is done; meelu + adi = meeladi = meelu is help, adi = that; that help; saarambagu = substantial; naarikeel`a = coconut
salilamu = water; bhamgin = like; gauravamu = honour; mari miidat`a = over and above that bhoori = very large; sukha + ahavamu = comfort; agu = will become; bhuvi = this earth ; bhuviloo = on this earth.

nad`uvakumii teruvokkat`a,
kud`uvakumii s`atru nimt`a kuurimi tood`an,
mud`uvakumii paradhanamula,
nud`uvakumii yorula manasu novvaga Sumatii ! 62

DON'T
1. Walk alone. 2. Feast enthusiastically in the house of enemies
3. Steal others' money 4. talk curtly and rudely.

nad`uvaku = do not walk; teruvu = path, road, way.; okkat`a = alone.
kuurimi = affection, friendship and lov; tood`an = with; mud`uvaku = do not steal
parulu + a = others'; dhanamu = money ; nud`uvaku = talk, utter; orula = parula = others'; manasu = mind; novvaga = getting pain; kud`uvaku = do not dine; s`atru = enemy; imt`a = imt`i loo = in the house; kuurimi = affection, friendship and love.

nammaku sumkari, juudari,
nammaku mogasaala vaani, nat`u velayaalin,
nammaku mamgad`i vaanini,
nammaku mii vaama hastu navanini Sumatii !! 63

PERSONS NOT TO BE TRUSTED
1. tax collector, gambler; 2. court employee; 3. prostitute ; 4. shop keeper
5. left hander.

nammaku = do not believe; sumkari = one who collects sumkamu.; sumkamu = duty, levy and tax; juudari = gambler; maga saala vaani = Maga saala, moga saala, moga sala have two meanings; 1.Front yard of a house. ; 2. Village court.; 3. stable for elephants.
amgad`i = kot`t`u = shop; vaama = left; hastun = handed; vaama hastu = left handed person; hastamu = hand; avani = earth, land, world; avani ni = on this earth, in this land, in this world = mahiloo = meedini.


nayamuna baalum draavaru,
bhayamunanu vis`hammunaina bhaks`himturugaa;
nayamemta doos`hakaariyo,
bhayamee juupamga valayu baaguga Sumatii !! 64

EFFECT OF FREIGHT AND THREAT IN GETTING RESULTS
This verse deals with motivating people for a desired action. The poet prefers the cane.
1. People do not drink milk when shown entreaties.
2. They consume poison when shown the stick.
3. Permissiveness is defecive.
4. Threats are to be administered, for good results.

nayamu = showing tolerance and using entreaties; paalu = milk; traavaru = do not drink (children, people etc.); bhayamu, bhayambu = fear, threat; vishamu, vishammu = poison; aina = even; bhakshimturu = will devour, eat; doosha kaari = a thing which leads to defects, errors; bhayamu + ee = bhayamee = fear and threat alone
cuupa = show; valayu = should; baaguga = appropriately, fittingly, well


narapatulu meera tappina,
tiram oppaga vidhava imt`a tiirpari ainan,
karan`amu vaidikud` ainanu,
maran`aamtakam aunu kaani maanadu Sumatii !! 65

THINGS WHICH MAY EVEN LEAD TO DEATH
1. If king himself does injustice. 2. Village accountant is well-versed follower of Vedas. 3. Widow becomes a judge.
narapatulu = kings; meera = border, limit; tappina = if they violate the limits; tiramu = continuously; oppaga = shiningly; vidhava = widow; imt`a = in the house; tiirpari = judge, arbitrator; ainan = if happens to be ; karan`amu = village accountant; vaidikud`u = well versed in scriptures and performer of rituals; maran`aamtakam = leads to death (perilous); aunu = will lead to, will happen; kaani = but; maanadu = does not stop.

navarasa bhaavaalamkruta
kavitaa goos`ht`iyunu, madhura gaanambunu daa
naviveeki kemta jeppina
cevit`iki s`ankhuudinat`lu siddhamu Sumatii !! 66

THINGS WHICH IMBECILE PERSONS CANNOT APPRECIATE
SIMILE : BLOWING A CONCH IN THE EAR OF A DEAF PERSON
1. A wicked person is like a deaf man.
2. No use in reciting the best poetry before him.
3. No use in playing melodious and soulful music to him. He cannot appreciate anything.
nava rasa = nine states of emotion and passion.
1. s`aamta = calmness,peace and tranquility; 2. kroodha = anger;
3. bhayanaka = fear, terrible; 4. bhiibhatsa = horrible and evoking disgust.
5. haasya = laughter; 6. karun`a = compassion, melancholy, pathos, pity, sadness
7. srimgaara = love, passion; 8. viira = valour
9. raudra = advanced stage of uncontrollable anger, in a destroying mode.

bhaava = states of ideas; alamkruta = decorated; kavita = poetry; goosht`i = seminar
kavita goosht`i = meeting of poets where poetry is read

madhura = sweet; gaanambu = singing; aviveeki ki = person who cannot distinguish between good and bad; ki = to (objective case); cevit`i = deaf person; s`amku, s`amkhu = conch; uudinat`lu = like blowing; siddhamu = readily

navvakum ii sabha loopala;
navvakum ii talli, tamd`ri, naathula tood`an;
navvakum ii parasatitoo;
navvakum ii vipravarula nayam idi Sumatii ! 67

WHEN AND WHERE NOT TO LAUGH
1. At a public place particularly in an assembly of elders. 2. In the presence of parents and husband. 3. in unison with some other's wife. 4. at priests.
navvaku = do not laugh; sabha = assembly of elders; eg. Lok Sabha = Lower house of Parliament
navvakumu = do not laugh -imperative case; ii is a suffix; sabha = assembly; loopala = loo = in; talli = mother; tamd`ri = father; naathud`u = husband; tood`an = with; para sati = wife of another person; vipra = priest; varu = the best among the priests; nayamu - good; idi = this; nayamidi = this is good.

niiree praan`a adhaaramu
nooree rasa bharitam aina nud`uvu laku ellan
naariye narulaku ratnamu
ciira ye s`rumgaaram amd`ru siddhamu Sumatii !! 68

WATER, MOUTH, WIFE, SAREE
1. Water is the essence of life.
2. Mouth is the source for all meaningful and
niiru = water; niiru ee = water only; praan`a = life's; aadharamu = base, crucial thing; nooru ee = mouth only; rasa = juice; bharitamu = full of; aina = being; nud`uvulu = sayings, utterances, words; la ku = to; naariye = woman only; naru laku = to men; ratnamu = gem; ciira = saree; ye = only; srumgaaramu = thing of beauty which arouses love in men; amd`ru = people say.


pagavala devvari tood`anu,
vagavamgaa valadu leemi vaccina pidapan,
tega naad`a valadu sabhalanu
maguvaku manasiyya valadu mahiloo Sumatii ! 69

DON'T
1. develop animosity towards anybody. 2. regret after becoming poor.
3. abuse others in open assemblies. 4. get yourself infatuated to a woman's love.

tega naad`a = criticise bitterly; maguva = woman; manasu = heart and mind
leemi = poverty; paga = animosity; valadu = do not have (NOT TO HAVE)


pati kad`a ku, tannu guurina
sati kad`a ku nu, veelpu kad`aku, sad guru kad`akun,
sutu kad`a ku ritta ceetula
matimamtulu canaru niiti maargamu Sumatii !! 70

WHERE NOT TO GO EMPTY HANDED
1. To a spouse; 2. To a god; 3. To a teacher; 4. To a son.

pati = husband; kad`a = near; ku = to; tannu = oneself in obj. case; sati = wife; veelpu = God; sadguru = teacher; sad is adjective for guru, meaning good; sutu = son;
ritta = empty, useless; ceetulu = hands; ritta ceetulu = empty handed; canaru = will not go; niiti = ethical, moral; maargamu = path;













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CHAPTER 8


pani ceeyun ed`ala daasi yu,
anubhavamu na rambha, mamtri aaloocana lan,
tana bhukti ed`ala talliyu,
nan tana kula kaamta umd`u nagu raa Sumatii !! 71

MULTIPLE ROLE OF WIFE
1. A servant maid while working; 2. A nymph and sweetheart during intercourse; 3. A minister and adviser in plans and strategies; 4. Mother while feeding.

pani = work; ceeyu = doing, working; ed`ala = at the time of ; daasi = servant maid; anubhavamu na = experience of intercourse; rambha = name of a heavenly nymph; mamtri = minister and adviser; aaloocana = thought, plan, strategy; tana = one's own; bhukti = feeding, food; ed`ala = in the case of ; talli = mother; kula kaamta = wife;
umd`u = stays, functions; agu = will be.

paranaarii soodarud`ai,
para dhanamula k(u) aasapad`aka, parula ku hitud`ai,
parulu tanu pogad`an egad`aka,
parul aliginan aluga(ni) atad`u paramud`u Sumatii !! 72

WHO IS A GREAT MAN
One who
1. treats women (other than wife) as sisters. 2. does not crave for others' money
3. wishes the welfare of others. 4. does not get hurt and irritated even if others do so.
para = others's; naari = woman; soodarud`u = brother; ai = having become; para dhanamulu = others' money; aas`a pad`aka = without craving for others' wealth;
ku = to; hitud`u = well wisher; tanu = oneself; pogad`an = when others praise; egad`aka = Not getting lifted up, pulled up; aliginan = even if others get angry;
alugani = one who does not get angry; atad`u = vaad`u = he (that who does not get angry); paramud`u = equal to God, or great man.


parasati kuut`ami kooraku,
paradhanamula(ku) aas`a pad`aku, parun emcakum ii,
sarigaani goos`ht`i seeyaku,
siri ced`i cut`t`ambu kad`aku ceeraku Sumatii ! 73


DON'T
1. long for a union with somebody else's wife. 2. crave for others' money
3. find fault with others; 4. engage in a debate or a scholarly conversation with unequals. 5. take refuge in a relative's house, when in financial morass

parasati = wife of another person; kuut`ami = intercourse, union; kooraku - do not crave for; para dhanamulu = other's money; aasa pad`aku = do not crave for; emcakumu = not find fault; sari gaani = unequal; goosht`i = discussion on scholarly matters; seeyaku = do not undertake; siri = wealth; ced`i = having been spoiled, lost; cut`t`ambu = cut`t`amu = relative; kad`a = near; ku = to; ceeraku = do not approach.

parasatula goos`ht`hi numd`ina
purus`hud`u gaamgeeyud`aina bhuvi nimda pad`un,
parasati sus`iila ainanu
parusamgati unna nimda paalagu Sumatii !! 74

WHEN MEN AND WOMEN GET UNDESERVED BLAME AND SLANDER
para satulu = wives of others; goosht`i = conversations with; umd`ina = if engaged in; purushud`u = man ; gaamgeeyud`aina = bhishma, a sworn bachelor; bhuvi = earth; nimda pad`u = gets a bad name;
para sati = wife of another person; sus`iila = pious woman; ainanu = even if ; paru samgati unna = while in conversation with an outsider; nimda paalagu = gets a bad name.


parulaku isht`amu seppaku,
porugimd`laku panulu leeka poovaku mepud`un,
paru kadisina sati kavayaku(mu),
erigiyu birus aina hayamul ekkaku Sumatii ! 75

DON'T
1. flatter others. 2. go to neighbours' houses without work.
3. have intercourse if wife has other relationships. 4. mount an unresponsive horse, even after knowing.

parulaku = to others; ishtamu = like; (flatter by telling what is liked); seppaku = do not tell; porugu = others, neighbouring; imd`lu = houses; ku = to; panulu = purposes, tasks, work; leeka = without; poovakumu = do not go; epud`un = ever;
paru = other person; kadisina = united (had intercourse with); sati = wife; kavayaku= do not have intercourse with (imp. case); erigi yu = in spite of knowledge; birusu aina = indisciplined; hayamul = horses; ekkaku = do not mount.


parvamula satula kavayaku(mu),
urviis`varu karun`a nammi ubbaku madiloo,
garvimpa naali pempaku,
nirvahan`amu leeni coot`a niluvaku Sumatii ! 76

DON'T
1. have intercourse on sacred days. 2. keep yourself bloated, believing the generosity and kindness of a king. 3. allow wife to develop excess conceit and pride
4. stay at a place where the going and maintenance is difficult.

parvamulu = sacred days; satulu = wives; kavayakumu = do not have union; urviis`varu = a king's; karun`a = kindness; nammi = believing, relying on; ubbaku = do not get bloated up; madi = heart, mind, within oneself; loo = in; garvimpan = to become a shrew, to become conceited, to be prideful; aali = sati = wife; pempaku = do not allow to grow (imperative case); nirvahan`amu = maintenance; leeni = without, which does not have; coot`a = a place; niluvaku = do not stay.


palu toomi seeyu vid`iyamu,
talagad`igina naat`i nidra, tarun`ula ed`alan
pola aluka naat`i kuut`ami
vela imta ani cepparaadu vinaraa Sumatii !! 77

PRICELESS COMFORTS AND LUXURIES
1. Eating pawn leaves after brushing teeth; 2. A night's sleep after shampooing hair; 3. intercourse on the first night of the marriage.
palu = teeth; toomi = brushed; seeyu = doing; vid`iyamu = pawn; tala = head; kad`igina = washed (with a shampoo); naat`i = of the day; nidra = sleep; tarun`ula ed`alan = towards women; pola aluka = a special ceremony on the day of nuptials; kuut`ami = union; vela = price; imta = this much, so much; ani = that; ceppa raadu = cannot say.


paat` erugani pati koluvu nu,
kuut`ambu naku erukapad`ani koomali rati yun,
peet`etta ceeyu celimi yu,
eet`iki edur iidin at`t`u lennaga Sumatii ! 78

EQUAL TO SWIMMING AGAINST THE CURRENT AND THE TIDE
1. Serving a husband, who does not understand a wife's difficulties. 2. Intercourse with a damsel without the knowledge of other family members. 3.

paat`u = difficulties; erugani = not knowing; pati = husband; koluvu = service; nu = also; kuut`ambu = intercourse, union; na ku = to, for; eruka pad`ani = not easily understood; koomali =lass, sweetheart, woman; rati = intercourse, union; peet`u = ; etta = arouses; ceeyu = which does; celimi = kuurimi; friendship; eet`i ki = eeru + ki = to a river current; ku, ki = to; eduru = in oppopsite direction; iidina = swim; attul(u) = like; ennaga = to consider, count, reckon.


paalanu kalasina jalamunu
paala vidhambunane umd`u parikimpam gaa
paala cavi ceracu kaavuna
paalasud`agu vaani pomdu valadura Sumatii ! 79

FRIENDSHIP WITH KNAVE is like WATER DILUTING MILK
1. Milk diluted with water looks like water.
2. After careful scrutiny, we find that the water spoils the taste of milk.

paalu = milk; jalamu = water; cavi = taste ; ceracu = spoils; kaavuna = hence
paalasud`u = wicked person; pomdu = friendship; vidhambu = vidhamu = like; umd`u = exists; parikimpam gaa = when observed, seen; paala = of milk (possessive case); cavi - taste; ceracu = spoils; valadu = do not have, not to have.


paalasunakaina yaapada
jaalimbad`i tiirpa dagadu sarvagnunakun
teelagni bad`aga bat`t`ina
meelerugune miit`u kaaka meedini Sumatii ! 80

INJURIOUS TO HELP KNAVES IN DANGER
SIMILE : WICKEDMAN = SCORPION.
1. When a wicked man is in danger, we should not show pity.
2. If we show pity on a scorpion amidst fire, it bites.
3. The wicked man does not know what is good to him.

paalasud`u = wicked man; aapada = danger, difficulty; jaali = compassion, pity
teelu = scorpion; agni = fire; pad`aga = top of flames; pat`t`ina = if caught in;
meel = benefit, help (here done by the person who saved it); erugune = does it know; miit`u = will bite; kaaka = if not; meedini = on this earth.













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CHAPTER 9






piluvani panulaku poovut`a,
kalayani sati gatiyu, raaju kaanani koluvum,
piluvani peeramt`ambu nu,
valuvani celimi yunu ceeya valadu ra Sumatii ! 81

DON'TS
1. Attending tasks, uninvited, unentrusted.
2. Having intercourse with an unwilling wife.
3. Serving a king, who is never seen.
4. Attending a function/reception without invitation (gatecrash, barge in)

piluvani = Uninvited; panulu = tasks; poovut`a = going to attend; kalayani = not willing to unite in an intercourse; raaju = king; kaanani = not found; koluvu = service, employment; peeramt`ambu = peeramt`amu = a family function and party, usually of women; nu = also; valuvani = ; celimi = friendship; yunu = also; ceeya = to do; valadu - Not to do.

putrootsaahamu tamd`riki
putrud`u janmimcinapud`e put`t`adu, janulaa
putruni kanugoni bogad`aga
putrootsaahambu naad`u pomdura Sumatii !! 82


PATERNAL BLISS, WHEN?
Children make us happy, not when they are born! But when people see and praise him!

People celebrate when children are born. There is nothing wrong in it. Excess ostentation may be counterproductive.

putra = son; utsaaham = enthusiasm, joy putra + utsaahamu = putrootsaahamu
putrud`u = son; tamd`ri = father; ki = to; janiyimcinapud`u = when born
kalugadu = does not take place, does not happen, will not come
janulu = people; aa = that; janulaa = people that; kanugoni = having seen, having recognised; pogad`aga = praise; naad`u = that day; pomdu = will get; ra= a suffix of familirity, informality.


purikini praan`amu goomat`i,
varikini praan`ambu niiru vasumati loonan,
garikini praan`amu tomd`amu,
sirikini praan`ambu maguva siddhamu Sumatii !! 83


WHAT ARE LIFE-LIKE?
The life of a City is a Banker (& merchant). On this earth, the life of paddy crop is water. The life of an elephant is its trunk. The life of wealth and prosperity is the wife.
puri = town, city; vari = paddy, rice; kari = elephant; siri = prosperity and wealth.
praan`amu, praan`ambu (poetic) = life. koomat`i = a merchant, a banker.
niiru = water; tomd`amu = trunk; maguva = woman, wife; loonan = in (poetic);
siddhamu = readily true; ki = to; ni = also (Here used to complete meter of the verse "kamdamu".)

Howsoever rich a man may be, his riches will have fulfillment only when his life is complete with an amiable wife.


puli paalu tecci iccina,
alavad`agaa gumd`e koosi araceen id`inan,
talapod`ugu dhanamu poosina,
velayaaliki kuurmi leedu vinaraa Sumatii !! 84

WHORE CAN NEVER BE FAITHFUL
A whore will never be friendly and satisfied even if a person fetches tiger's milk and gives her; habitually cuts his heart and keeps on her palm; showers her with gold top to bottom.
puli = tiger; paalu = milk; tecci = having brought; iccina = having given;
alavad`aga = habitually; gumd`e heart; koosi = having cut; ara ceen = in the palm; id`inan = even if kept; tala = head; pod`ugu = long; dhanamu = money; poosina = even after showering; velayaalu = whore; ki = to; kuurmi = friendship, amiability; leedu = no; not exists.


pet`t`ina dinamula loopala
nat`t`ad`avulanaina vaccu naanaarthamulun,
bet`t`ani dinamula ganakapu
gat`t`ekkina neemi leedu gadaraa Sumatii !! 85

DAYS OF FORTUNE AND MISFORTUNE
1. DAYS OF FORTUNE : Every thing comes to us even if we are in the midst of a deep forest. 2. DAYS OF MISFORTUNE : Even if we go and sit on a
hillock of gold, we get nothing.

pet`t`ina dinamulu = days of fortune; loopala = in ; nat`t`ad`avulu = deep forests
aina = even; vaccu = come; naanaa = many, several; ardhamulun = materials, things, wealth; pet`t`ani dinamulu = days not blessed with fortune; kanakapu = gold(en)
gat`t`u = dale, hillock; ekkina = having climbed; eemi = anything; leedu = no, not.


poruguna pagavaad`umd`ina,
irav(u) omdaka vraatakaad`e eelika ainan,
dhara kaapu komd`emaad`ina,
karan`aa laku braduku leedu kadaraa Sumatii !! 86


WHEN A VILLAGE OFFICIAL CANNOT SURVIVE?
Becomes difficult for a village accountant to survive if
1. there is an enemy in the close neighbourhood;
2. an accountant becomes rule, but not in a stable place;
3. if a farmer becomes a backbighter, slanderer and a tale bearer.

porugu na = in the neightbourhood; paga vaad`u = enemy; umd`ina = if exists; iravu = place; omdaka = without change; vraata kaad`u = a copy writer; eelika = king; ainan = if happens; dhara = on this earth; kaapu = farmer; komd`em = slander; komd`emaad`ina = indulges in tale bearing; karan`aalu = village accountant; braduku = life, livelihood; leedu = does not exist.

bamgaaru kuduva pet`t`aku,
samgaramuna paari pooku sarasud`av aitee,
amgad`i veccamu vaad`aku,
vemgali too celimi valadu vinaraa Sumatii ! 87

If you are a connoisseur, then pl. do not

1. pawn gold; 2. flee from battle field; 3. buy goods on credit from a grocer;
4. befriend an ignorant, inert fool and stupid person.

bamgaaru = gold; kuduva = to pledge; pet`t`aku = do not keep (do not pledge); samgaramu = battle; na = in; paari pooku = do not flee; sarasud`u = gentleman, man of good taste; amiable and well-behaved man; aitee = if you are; amgad`i = shop, grocer; veccamu = groceries; vaad`aku = do not use (figuratively: do not use credit for buying groceries); vemgali = fool, knave, rascal; too = with; celimi = friendship; valadu = do not have.


balavamtud`a naak eem ani
paluvuratoo nigrahimci palukut`a meelaa;
balavamtam aina sarpamu
cali ciimala ceeta cikki caavade Sumatii !! 88

NOT TO BOAST AND TAKE PRIDE
A person, even if strong, should not take pride and bloat with many people that he is invincible. It does no good to him; A strong and powerful snake can get killed in the hands of small ants.

bala vamtud`u = strong man; vamtud`u = possessor; naaku = me; eemani = eemi + ani = what is to me? (I am strong); paluvuru = many people; too = with; nigrahimci = boastfully; palukut`a = declaring, swearing, uttering; meelaa? = Does it any good? (No not!); balavamtam = strong (neuter gender); aina = happened to be, being; sarpamu = paamu = snake; cali ciimalu = a species of small ants; ceeta = by, in the hands of ; cikki = having been caught; caavade! = does it not die?


madin okani valaci umd`aga
madiced`i oka kruura vit`ud`u maanaka tirugun
badi ciluka pilli pat`t`ina
caduvune aa pamjaramuna jagati ni Sumatii ! 89

WOMAN'S LOVE ELSE PLACED
Situation : A girl loves a person. Another fiendish suitor courts her ceaselessly.
SIMILE USED BY THE POET: The girl is like a parrot which learnt words in a school. If it is caught by a cat, the parrot does not read what it learnt in the school.

madi = mind; madini = in the mind; okani = one in objective case; valaci = having loved; umd`aga = staying; madi cedi = having lost mind; oka = one; kruura = cruel; vit`ud`u = paramour; maanaka = ceaselessly; tirugun = visits repeatedly; bad`i = school; ciluka = parrot; pilli = cat; pat`t`ina = if catches; caduvune = does it read; aa = that; pamjaramu na = in that cage; jagati = world; ni = in.

mamd`ala pati samukhambuna
memd`aina pradhaani leeka melagut`a ellan
komd`amta madaput `eenugu
tomd`amu leek(a) umd`inat`lu toocu ra Sumatii ! 90

IMPORTANCE OF A PRIME MINISTER
A king unaccompanied by his Prime Minister, dealing with a vassal, is like an elephant without a trunk.
mamd`ala = A small area; mamd`ala pati = a baron; samukhamu = in the presence of ; memd`aina = an efficient; pradhaani = PM; leeka = without; melagut`a = moving; ellan = all that; komd`a = hill; amta = of the size; madaput` eenugu = a large powerful elephant; tomd`amu = trunk; leeka = without; umd`u = exist, stay; at`lu = like; toocu = looks as if.










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CHAPTER 10





mamtri kala vaani raajyamu
tamtramu sed`akumd`a nilucu taracuga dharaloo
mamtri vihiinuni raajyamu
jamtrapu kiilu ud`inat`lu jarugadu Sumatii !! 91

IMPORTANCE OF PRIME MINISTER
A State with a PM lasts long without violation of statecraft. A State which does not have a PM is like a machine without levers and switches.

mamtri = minister, adviser; kala = having; vaani = his = that person's (possessive case of vaad`u - he) ; raajyamu = kingdom; tamtramu = statecraft; sed`a kumd`a = ced`akumd`a = without getting bad; nilucu = will survive, last; taracuga = often, frequently; dharaloo = on this earth, in this world; vihiinud`u = person not having; vihiinuni = possessive case of vihiinud`u; jamtrapu = of jamtramu = machine; kiilu = lever; uud`inat`lu = like a lever of a machine getting loosened; jarugadu = will not move.


maat`a ku praan`amu satyamu,
koot`a ku praan`ambu subhat`a koot`i, dharitrin
boot`i ki praan`amu maanamu,
ciit`i ki praan`ambu vraalu siddhamu Sumatii ! 92

CRUCIAL THINGS
LIFE OF 1. promise and word : truth. 2. fort : a good army. 3. woman : chastity.
4. letter : signature.
maat`a = word; praan`amu = life; satyamu = truth; subhat`a = good soldiers; koot`i = 10 million or large number; subhat`a koot`i = a large good army; dharitrin = on this earth, in this world; boot`i = woman; maanamu = chastity; ciit`i = letter, slip; vraalu = signature; The suffix ambu used here is poetic of amu. praan` ambu = praan`amu.


maanadhanu d`aatmadhruti ced`i
hiinumd`agu vaanin aas`rayimcut`a ellan
maaned`u jalamula loopalan
eenugu meyi daacinat`t`u lerugumu Sumatii ! 93

MISPLACEMENT OF A NOBLE PERSON
SITUATION : A person with self-respect, losing his self confidence, takes shelter with a knave. SIMILE USED BY THE POET: Like hiding an elephant in a measure of one litre.
maana dhanud`u = person rich in self respect; aatma dhruti = self confidence; ced`i = having lost; hiinumd`u = hinud`u = rascal; agu = suffix for adjective; vaad`u + ni = vaani = him in obj. case; aasr`rayimcut`a = seeking refuge, taking shelter;
ellan = all that; maaned`u = a measureful; jalamulu = water; loopala = loo = in; eenugu = elephant; meyi = ; daacinat`t`ul = it is like hiding; daacu = hide; daacina = having hidden; erugumu = know.


meel emcani maalinyuni,
maala nu, mogasaalevaani, mamgali hitu gaa
eelina narapati raajyamu
neela kalasi poovu kaani negad`adu Sumatii ! 94

THINGS HARMFUL TO A STATE
This is a poem full of the 13th Century prejudices.
A kingdom touches dust if it has as advisers: 1. a malivolent person who does not see a good done by others. 2. a person of "maala" caste. 3. a doorman.

meelu = good things, help; emcani = not considering; maalinyuni = maalinyud`u + ni = malivolent person in objective case; maala = a caste; mogasaala vaad`u = door keeper in a court or king's fort; mamgali = barber; hitu = adviser; hitu gaa = as adviser; eelina = ruling; narapati = king; raajyamu = kingdom; neela = earth; kalasi = joins; neela kalasi = touches dust, gets destroyed; poovu = goes; kaani = but; negad`adu = does not survive.


raapommani piluvani aa
bhuupaaluni kolva bhukti muktulu kalavee
diipambu leeni imt`anu
ceepuna kiil`l`aad`in at`lu siddhamu Sumatii ! 95

SERVING AN INDIFFERENT AND UNRECEPTIVE KING
Serving a king who does not keep in touch with, will be futile. Neither fills the belly nor provides relief.
SIMILE USED: It is like searching for food in a dark house.

raa = come; pommu = go; ani = having said that; piluvani = not calling for, not inviting; aa = that; bhuupaalu ni = king in obj. case; kolva = in serving, by serving; bhukti = livelihood; mukti = deliverance; bhukti muktulu = food and deliverance; kalavee? = do they exist? (food and deliverance); diipambu = diipamu = lamp; leeni = without, not having; imt`anu = in the house; ceepu na = ; kil`l`aad`i; nat`lu = like; siddhamu = readily.

ruupimci paliki bomkaku,
praapagu cut`t`ambu neggu palukaku madi loo,
koopimcu raaju kolvaku,
paapapu dees`ambu soraku padilamu Sumatii ! 96

DON'TS
1. Don't tell lies 2. Don't blame a relative who is helpful and supportive.
3. Don't serve an angry king. 4. Don't enter a dishonest and sinful country.

ruupimci = ascertaining, confirming, proving; paliki = telling; bomkaku = do not lie (tell lies); praapagu = praapu agu = patronising, protecting, supporting; agu is the suffix of adjective; cut`t`ambu = relative; eggu = abuse, find faults; palukaku = do not tell, utter; madi = mind; loo = in; koopimcu = getting angry; raaju = king; kolvaku = do not serve; paapapu = sinful; dees`ambu = dees`amu = country; soraku - do not enter; padilamu = be careful.


laavi kala vaani kamt`enu
bhaavimpaga niitiparud`u balavamtumd`au
graavamb amta gajambunu
maavat`i vaad` ekkinat`lu mahiloo Sumatii !! 97

MORAL STRENGTH
A sincere and intelligent person is more powerful than a person holding a sickle. An elephant of the size of a hillock, is controlled by a mahout (driver of an elephant).
laavi = physical strength; kala = having; vaani = vaad`u + ni = that person (obj. case, in comparison); kamt`enu = than; bhaavimpa ga = to consider; niitiparud`u = ethical minded person; balavamtud`u = strong person; graavambu = graavamu = big boulder; amta = of the size; gajambu = gajamu = elephant; nu = also; maavat`i = mahour; ekkina = mounted; atlu = like.


varadaina ceenu dunnaku,
karavainanu bamdhujanula kad`ak eegakumii,
paru laku marmamu ceppaku,
piriki ki dal`avaayi tanamu pet`t`aku Sumatii ! 98

DON'TS
1. Don't plough a flood field.
2. Don't approach relatives for help, even when there is a famine.
3. Don't reveal personal secrets.
4. Don't entrust commandership to a timid person.

varadaina = flooded; ceenu = field; dunnaku = do not till (imp. case); karavu= drought, famine; ainanu = even if happens, takes place; bamdhu janulu = relatives; kad`a = near; ku = to; eegaku = do not go (imp. case); parulu + ku = paru laku = to others; marmamu = secrets; ceppaku = do not tell (context: reveal secrets); piriki = timid; ki = to; dal`avaayi = chieftain, head of a command; tanamu = -ship (as in leadership, lordship); pet`t`aku = do not keep (context: entrust).

varipamt`a leeni yuurunu,
dora yumd`ani yuuru, tood`u dorakani teruvun,
dharanu pati leeni gruhamunu
narayamgaa rudrabhuumi yanadagu Sumatii ! 99

EQUAL TO A GRAVE YARD

1. A village without paddy crop.
2. A village which has no head
3. A path in which there is no Company (Co-traveller)

vinadagu nevvaru ceppina
vininamtane veega pad`aka vivarimpa dagun
kani kalla nijamu delisina
manujud`e poo niiti parud`u mahiloo Sumatii ! 100

IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING AND ANALYSING
We should FIRST LISTEN : Whoever says a thing. We should THEN ANALYSE : without haste
That person who sees and then distinguishes between what is true and false, is a real ethical man.

vina = to listen; tagu, tagun = appropriate; evvaru = who, whoever; ceppina = tells
vinina amtane = vininamtane = after listening; veega pad`aka = without undue speed (haste); veega; veegam; veegamu = speed; vivarimpa = explain (understand); vini = after listening, having heard (past tense, in subordinate clause); kalla = falsehood, untruth; nijamu = truth; telisina = knowing; manujud`e = the man, that man
niiti parud`u = man of ethics; mahi = ila = dhara = earth; loo = in; mahiloo = in this world or on this earth; Sumatii = Oh person of virtuous mind!


viid`emu seeyani nooru nu,
ceed`e la adharaamrutambu seeyani noorun,
paad`amga raani nooru nu
buud`idak iravaina paad`u bomda ra Sumatii ! 101

EQUAL TO A DITCH DUG FOR A GRAVE
1. A mouth which does not eat pawn leaves
2. A mouth which does not suck the nectar from the lips of women
3. A mouth which does not sing

viid`emu = pawn; seeyani = not doing; nooru = mouth; nu = also; ceed`e = sweetheart;
la = possessive case; adhara = lips; amrutambu = amrutamu = nectar; adharaamrutambu = nectar from lips; paad`anga = to sing; raani = not knowing; buud`ida = ash; ku = to; iravu = place; paad`u = dilapidated, useless; bomda = ditch dug for a grave.

velayaali valana kuurimi
kalagadu, mari kaligeneeni kad`ateeradugaa;
paluvuru nad`aced`u teruvuna
molavadu puvu, moliceneeni podaladu Sumatii ! 102

FRIENDSHIP WITH A WHORE
Attachment and friendship with a whore does not arise. If arises it does not end.
Grass does not grow in a path where many people walk. If it grows, it does not wean.
velayaalu = whre; kuurimi = friendship; kalugadu = does not arise; paluvuru = many; nad`aced`u (adj) = that which is used for walking; teruvu = path; molavadu = does not germinate;


velayaalu ceeyu baasalu,
velayaga mogasaala pomdu velamala celimin,
kalaloona kanna kalimiyu
vilasitamuga nammaraadu vinaraa Sumatii ! 103

THINGS NOT TO BE BELIEVED
1. Promises and words of a whore.
2. Friendship of an elephant keeper, door keeper.
3. Friendship of Velamas (Historical context of 13th Century, Velama is a Caste).
4. Prosperity and wealth seen in dreams.

velayaalu = prostitute, whore; baasalu = promises; ceeyu = done; velayaga = fittingly, shiningly; mogasala = door keeper,elephant keeper
kala = dream; loona = in; kanna = seen; kalimi = prosperity and wealth; vilasitamuga = fittingly, appropriately; nammaraadu = not to be believed.


veesarapu jaati kaanii,
viisamu taa ceeyanat`t`i viirid`i kaanii,
daasi kod`ukaina kaanii,
kaasulu gala vaad`e raaju gadaraa Sumatii !! 104

ONLY A MONEYED MAN CAN BE KING
1. Person of lowly birth
2. An inert, ignorant and stupid person who does not cost even 1/16 of a Rupee
3. Son of a servant;
Whosoever he is, if he has money, he is fit tobe a king.

veesarapu jaati = person of lowly birth; kaanii = let him, let it be;
viisamu = 1/16; viirad`i = inert, stupid person.
daasi = servant maid; kod`uku = son; kaasulu = money; kala vaad`u = person who owns, possesses; raaju = king;

s`ubhamula pomdani caduvunu,
nabhinayamuga raagarasamu namdani paat`al,
gubha gubhalu leeni kuut`ami,
sabha meccani maat`alella jappana Sumatii ! 105

INSIPID THINGS
1. Education which does not lead to happy events.
2. Singing and music which do not lead to ecstasy.
3. Union (between lover and beloved) without hubbub, tumult and uproar.
4. Conversation and talk which an assembly does not appreciate.
subhamulu = good and happy events and things; pomdani = not attaining; caduvu = education; abhinayamu = acting, depiction and portrayal; amdani = not gaining, not reaching; paat`al= songs; gubhagubhal = hubbub; (Hubbub is a Celtic contribution to English. Telugu and Sanskrit are nearer. Sanskrit and English both belong to Indo-European group.)


sarasamu virasamu korakee,
paripuurn`a sukhambu ladhika baadhala korakee,
perugut`a virugut`a korakee,
dhara taggut`a heccu korake tathyamu Sumatii !! 106

EVERY RISE IS FOR A FALL - EVERY FALL IS FOR A RISE
Banter can lead to breakup. Absolute happiness can lead to miseries.
Growth is for decline. Fall in prices is for rise in prices.

sarasamu = banter, raillery, teasing; virasamu = break down of communication, unpleasantness; koraku = for ; korakee = only for; paripuurn`a = perfect, full, absolute; sukhambulu = sukhamulu = comforts, happy events; adhika = excess, extreme
baadhalu = worries, miseries, problems, hardships; perugut`a = growth
virugut`a = fall, decline; dhara = price; taggut`a = fall; heccuta = rise, increase
tathyamu = truth; Sumatii = Oh good minded person!


siri taa vaccina vaccunu
salalitamuga naarikeeLa salilamu bhamgin,
siri taa booyina boovunu
kari mrimgina velaga pamd`u karan`ini Sumatii !! 107

BEHAVIOUR OF WEALTH
When wealth accumulates, it accrues like water in a coconut fruit, unnoticed by us.
When prosperity leaves, it will be like a stone apple devoured by an elephant.
(Belief: When an elephant swallows a stone apple, its external tough scalp will be in tact. The pulp inside disappears. This does not appear to be possible).

siri = wealth, prospertiy, the Goddess Lakshmi; taa = taanu = oneself, herself
vaccina = if comes; vaccunu = comes, will come; pooyina = if goes;
poovunu = goes, will go; kari = elephant; mrimgina = swallowed; velaga = stone apple
pamd`u - fruit; karan`i ni = like; Sumatii! = Oh good minded person!

During the days of Baddena (this poet lived in 13th Century A.D.), India was under raids by Turkish invaders via Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Delhi. There was widespread plunder. Life was full of insecurity and uncertainities. This seems to be reflected in the poet's fatalistic thinking.


striila ed`a vaadulaad`aku,
baaluratoo celimi ceesi bhaas`himpaku mii,
meelaina gun`amu vid`uvaku,
meelaina pati nimda seeyak(u) ennad`u Sumatii ! 108

DON'TS

1. Not to argue and demur in respect of women.
2. Friendship with children.
3. Abandoning good characteristics, habits and qualities.
3. Blaming a good husband.

strii =woman; striilu =women; ed`a =to women; baaluru = children;too = with;
celimi = friendship; bhaashimpaku = do not engage in conversation; meelu aina = good; gun`amu = quality; vid`uvaku = do not abandon; pati = husband; nimda = blame, find fault; seeyaku = not do; ennad`u = at any time.

also: SUMATI SATAKAM. SUMATHI SATAKAM SUMATHI SATHAKAM SUMATI SATAKAMU
SUMATHI SATAKAMU

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